Contact allergy involving the oral mucosa, is a poorly understood clinical entity.
Contact allergy is also often mistaken for chronic trauma caused by fractured teeth,
fractured restorations, ill-fitting prosthesis or parafunctional oral habits. These
lesions have a similar clinical appearance.
Dental materials contining DL-camphorquinone, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid ethyl
ester (DMABEE), drometrizol, 1,7,7 – trimethylbicyclo /2,2,1/ heptane, 2,2-dimethoxy
/1,2/ diphenyletanone (DMBZ), ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and triethyleneglycol
dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) may potentially cause allergic reaction.
In addition latex is also one of the important material to cause allergy.
Several manifestations of allergic reactions have oral and facial involvement like
angio-oedema of the lips and tongue, urticaria of the face and erythema multiforme
of the skin, lips and oral mucosa.
Dental personnel should be familiar with the major signs and symptoms of allergic
reactions. Previous allergic status of patients and personnel should be noted.
Dental personnel should always keep records of dental materials used. If allergic
reaction occurs, backtracking is necessary in order to identify the specific allergen.
- Do not mistake contact allergy for chronic trauma.
Local exhaust ventilation systems can significantly reduce the peak concentration
of acrylate vapour in the breathing zone of dental technicians. (However, the local
exhaust ventilation is not efficient in reducing the concentration of airborne acrylic
Nitrile, vinyl or 4H gloves should be used by the dental practitioner if acrylate
or latex sensitivity is suspected.
If sensitivity is suspected inform the patient about possible clinical tests to
determine origin of allergy, e.g. acrylate patch testing. Delayed sensitivity may
be prevalent in certain cases.
- Be aware of cross-sensitivity towards colouring agents of dentures.
- Create a latex-free environment for personnel and patients with latex sensitivity.
Infection control protocols followed by the dentists are effective in safeguarding
the patient from any potential injuries or cross contamination.